Carbon is the fourth most abundant Chemical Element in the Universe and can be found in pretty much everything from rocks to people.

Diamonds are Clear, Graphite is Black, both are Carbon.

General properties
Name, symbol, number carbon, C, 6
Pronunciation /ˈkɑrbən/
Element category polyatomic nonmetal

sometimes considered a metalloid

Group, period, block 14, 2, p
Standard atomic weight 12.011(1)
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p2

2, 4

Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) amorphous: 1.8–2.1 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) diamond: 3.515 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) graphite: 2.267 g·cm−3
Sublimation point 3915 K, 3642 °C, 6588 °F
Triple point 4600 K, 10800 kPa
Heat of fusion 117 (graphite) kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity diamond: 6.155 J·mol−1·K−1
Molar heat capacity graphite: 8.517 J·mol−1·K−1
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, −1, −2, −3, −4
Electronegativity 2.55 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1086.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2352.6 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4620.5 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius sp3: 77 pm

sp2: 73 pm sp: 69 pm

Van der Waals radius 170 pm
Crystal structure diamond[1]

(diamond, clear)

simple hexagonal[2]

(graphite, black)

Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity diamond: 900-2300 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal conductivity graphite: 119-165 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) (diamond) 0.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) (diamond) 18350 m·s−1
Young's modulus diamond: 1050 GPa
Shear modulus diamond: 478 GPa
Bulk modulus diamond: 442 GPa
Poisson ratio diamond: 0.1
Mohs hardness diamond: 10

graphite: 1-2

CAS registry number 7440-44-0
Discovery Egyptians and Sumerians (3750 BC)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier (1789)
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of carbon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
11C syn 20 min β+ 0.96 11B
12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β 0.15 0 14N

More information: This article on Wikipedia

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