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Carbon is the fourth most abundant Chemical Element in the Universe and can be found in pretty much everything from rocks to people.
250px-Diamond-and-graphite-with-scale

Diamonds are Clear, Graphite is Black, both are Carbon.


General properties
Name, symbol, number carbon, C, 6
Pronunciation /ˈkɑrbən/
Element category polyatomic nonmetal

sometimes considered a metalloid

Group, period, block 14, 2, p
Standard atomic weight 12.011(1)
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p2

2, 4

Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) amorphous: 1.8–2.1 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) diamond: 3.515 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) graphite: 2.267 g·cm−3
Sublimation point 3915 K, 3642 °C, 6588 °F
Triple point 4600 K, 10800 kPa
Heat of fusion 117 (graphite) kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity diamond: 6.155 J·mol−1·K−1
Molar heat capacity graphite: 8.517 J·mol−1·K−1
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, −1, −2, −3, −4
Electronegativity 2.55 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1086.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2352.6 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4620.5 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius sp3: 77 pm

sp2: 73 pm sp: 69 pm

Van der Waals radius 170 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure diamond[1]

(diamond, clear)

simple hexagonal[2]

(graphite, black)

Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity diamond: 900-2300 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal conductivity graphite: 119-165 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) (diamond) 0.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) (diamond) 18350 m·s−1
Young's modulus diamond: 1050 GPa
Shear modulus diamond: 478 GPa
Bulk modulus diamond: 442 GPa
Poisson ratio diamond: 0.1
Mohs hardness diamond: 10

graphite: 1-2

CAS registry number 7440-44-0
History
Discovery Egyptians and Sumerians (3750 BC)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier (1789)
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of carbon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
11C syn 20 min β+ 0.96 11B
12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β 0.15 0 14N

More information: This article on Wikipedia

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